From the Director

From the Director: December 2015

shakespeareCleveland Public Library, Great Lakes Theater, Shaker Library, and other grant participants learned recently that they were selected to host “First Folio! The Book that Gave Us Shakespeare.” This exhibition will travel to more than 50 locations next year, in commemoration of the 400th anniversary of the death of William Shakespeare.

Shakespeare, the famous poet and playwright, is regarded by most as the greatest writer of the English language. He was born in Stratford-upon-Avon in 1564, died there in 1616, and has been called England’s national poet, the “Bard of Avon.”

In celebration of the many activities surrounding the exhibit, Shaker Library has declared 2016 as the “Year of the Bard.” We hope to draw people to the library’s website through the use of a 24-hour-a-day “Shakespeare Cam,” featuring our bobblehead mascot, “Billy the Bard.” He will help publicize “Bard-related” events, including a performance at the Main Library, as well as other library programs throughout the year.

The actual “First Folio” will be housed in a secure, climate-controlled case within the Rare Books Room at Cleveland Public Library from June 20 to July 30, where it will be available for public viewing. Cleveland is one of only five public libraries to host the Folio—the other locations being 23 museums, 20 universities, three historical societies, and a theater. Published in 1623, just seven years after Shakespeare died, it is one of 80 copies owned by the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington, DC, among just over 200 in existence worldwide. Single copies have been valued in excess of $5 million dollars!

Grant funding for the exhibit comes from the American Library Association in collaboration with “the Folger” and the Cincinnati Museum Center, and includes major support from the National Endowment for the Humanities, as well as generous donations from and Vinton and Sigrid Cerf.

Visitors will be able to view the valuable volume, which contains 36 of 38 plays written by Shakespeare, including all but two of his lesser known comedies: Pericles, Prince of Tyre, and The Two Noble Kinsman. At each site, the First Folio will be opened to the most quoted line from Hamlet, “to be, or not to be, that is the question.” The exhibit will be accompanied by six interpretive panels with background information on the Folio, Shakespeare, and his times, exploring his impact then and now. Digital content and interactive activities will also be included.

Since Tuesday, December 1 is Giving Tuesday and since December is the season of giving, may I suggest a donation to the Library, the Library Endowment Fund, or the Friends of the Shaker Library? Your gift will help sustain the library and the Friends. Please consider a gift to benefit all readers. I thank you in advance in the words of Shakespeare, who said, “I can no other answer make, but thanks, and thanks.”

Be sure to follow “Billy the Bard” at beginning December 31 and January 1 when he will celebrate the New Year. Watch for him daily when he will celebrate a variety of dates, including January 7 (National Bobblehead Day) and February 5 (The Friends’ “Literary Libations III” featuring drinks from Shakespeare, Not Stirred: Cocktails for Your Everyday Dramas), March 2 (Read Across America Day), April 4 (Opening Day at Progressive Field), and many more!

Luren E. Dickinson, Director

From the Director: November 2015

The New York Times recently published an opinion piece entitled, “Reinventing the Library,” by Argentinian-Canadian author, Alberto Manguel.  He warns that today “the principal danger facing libraries comes. . .from ill-considered changes that may cause libraries to lose their triple role,” which he defines as

  • preserving society’s memories,
  • providing the materials and tools to navigate those memories, and
  • maintaining the library as a symbol of our collective identity.

One could quibble as to whether his definition of the library’s role is accurate.  He certainly knows a great deal about the history of libraries and spends a considerable time describing antiquity’s famous Library of Alexandria.  But when it comes to libraries in the United States during this current era, he appears to be a bit out of touch.

He says that libraries have been “mere storage rooms of a technology deemed defunct” since the mid-20th century!  How can that be when the personal computer as popularized by the IBM-PC dates only from 1981?  The Internet itself was still in its infancy in the mid-1990s and eBook sales did not begin to make inroads into print book sales until this very decade!

The opinion writer goes on to say that “Most libraries today are used less to borrow books than to seek protection from harsh weather and to find jobs online. . .,” which is a completely outrageous statement! It might interest him to know that even though circulation has declined from all-time record levels nationally over the last five years or so, Shaker Library circulated 16% more BOOKS in 2014 than it did forty years ago in 1974!  So much for a “defunct” technology!

I think the author may be trying to help libraries.  He does say that the public “must be prepared to invest. . .more, not less funds” in libraries to allow the reinvention of services to take place.  But he may be doing more harm than good because of the way he describes library services of today.

His commentary emphasizes the homeless and those requiring social services, customers that are certainly overwhelming some urban libraries.  But that is not the case across the nation. Likewise, he talks about American librarians “routinely” giving “medical care” when the vast majority of professional librarians make it a point not to give advice in the areas of health, the law, and taxes!

Most everyone agrees that libraries are not child care providers, but he goes to the extreme to say that a library is not “a nursery or a fun fair” and singles out an Ohio library that offers “pajama parties.”  This librarian may not go back to the Library of Alexandria, but he certainly remembers other Ohio libraries that hosted pajama story times going back 40 years ago!  And Shaker Library has hosted the Play & Learn Station, a developmental literacy and learning center since the late 1990s, because we know that young children learn better through play. Play is a child’s work.

Libraries are certainly evolving, just like all other parts of society.  The columnist was obviously well intended, but he could have taken a more positive approach and described the way that many libraries are adapting to new technologies by introducing exciting new formats and services, such as preloaded tablets and innovation labs, while continuing to provide the traditional items and programs that many, if not most, still demand!

Luren E. Dickinson, Director

In Memoriam: Barbara Luton

Barbara C. Luton: December 26, 1928 – October 15, 2015
Barbara C. Lubarbara lutonton passed away peacefully in Portland, Maine in the early morning hours on October 15, 2015. Barbara was born to Colin and Ruth Campbell in Newton, Massachusetts on December 26, 1928. She admitted as a child to feeling a bit cheated by having Christmas overshadow her birthday (people would give her a “combination” gift, she explained). Barbara and her younger sister Nancy wore orange on St. Patrick’s Day, sang in the church choir (though she told the hospice chaplain that she “was beyond all that”), worked as a page at the local library and enjoyed sledding, ice skating and school. She attended Mather College of Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. There she met Michael Luton, an Englishman studying American History. Upon graduation they moved to England and married in 1952. Joanne was born and Peter followed. The family returned to the United States on the Queen Mary in 1957 and settled in Cleveland, Ohio.

When the children were little, Barbara began her career with the Shaker Heights Public Library. Barbara reveled in books and earned her Master’s in Library Science. She advanced through the library system and served as Director for 20 years until retirement in 1994. Barbara guided the Library from a card catalogue and rubber stamp, brick and book institution into a digital and information technologies center of discovery and service, from a traditional whispering space to a contemporary, vibrant community resource. She promoted the values of libraries and literacy and voted for every school and library levy. In retirement Barbara wrote book reviews for the Cleveland Plain Dealer and planned numerous literacy and bibliophile events.
A determined walker, Barbara took long, arm-swinging rambles on the beach, through the town and in and out of park trails. She and Michael traveled enthusiastically. She loved the theater and the symphony and could knit while reading. Barbara’s feisty resolve and core of integrity and independence inspired and sustained her personally and professionally. She had opinions and spoke her mind with wit and without malice.

For many years Barbara and Michael gathered her sister, children and grandchildren at Goose Rocks Beach, Maine for sand castles, beach hiking, bird watching, laughter and lobsters. Visits with grandchildren highlighted each year, and much time was spent playing trains on the floor, reading stories, telling stories, watching enthusiasms blossom and values mature.
Barbara and Michael moved to The Cedars in Portland, Maine in 2010 where they enjoyed their neighbors and deeply appreciated the thoughtfulness of all the staff.
Barbara is predeceased by Michael Luton and Nancy Ricker, brother-in-law Colin Cornwall, and nephew Steev Cornwall. She is survived by her children Joanne Allen (Jonathan), Peter Luton (Linda Berg), grandchildren, Katherine Allen (Aaron Putnam), Emily Giarrocco (Brian), Colin Luton and Seth Luton. Also, survived by niece Debby Roy (Tom), and cousin Fred Campbell (Deanna), sister-in-law Enid Cornwall, and niece and nephews Philippa (Kevin) Bishop, Andrew Cornwall, and Jonathan (Naomi) Cornwall.

A family celebration of Barbara Luton will be held this summer at Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, MA. Barbara’s kindness and generosity, her civic mindedness, her dry wit and her devotion to family and friends remain to bless the world. Memorial gifts in her honor may be sent to the Shaker Heights Public Library, 16500 Van Aken Boulevard, Shaker Heights, Ohio 44120, or to a charity of your choice.

From the Director: October 2015

The Pew Research Center report, “Libraries at the Crossroads,” was released last month with some interesting findings that are important to Shaker Library. The study found that 89% of those surveyed nationally think that libraries “impact” their communities positively, which is similar to the 94% of residents surveyed locally who said “a good public library is important to the quality of life in Shaker Heights” per the recent TRIAD survey.

infographicOverall, the Pew Research Center’s findings indicate that Americans want their public libraries to: a) support local education; b) serve special groups, such as immigrants; c) help local businesses and job seekers; and d) embrace new technologies, such as 3-D printers and other high-tech gadgetry.

Shaker Library is “on track” in these areas: a) aligning itself with the Shaker Schools, using the “A+ Partnership in Education” model, with some success in recent years; b) offering longtime programs like “English in Action” ESL; c) establishing the Community Entrepreneurial Office/Career Transition Center (CEO/CTC) cooperative while reaching out to the LaunchHouse business incubator; and d) introducing digital devices to the public and investigating the concept of maker spaces. But there is more work to do.

Proponents of the “Libraries = Education” movement argue that this approach will help public libraries to reclaim their purpose in the twenty-first century as we see traditional models of physical collections and physical checkouts giving way to the virtual world of e-media collections and electronic access.

There is no doubt that library circulation and attendance have been declining on a national basis because of this changing landscape which has occurred since the start of the Great Recession. But now things seem to be in a holding pattern. A recent New York Times headline says, “Print is far from dead” with “signs that some e-book adopters are returning to print” and e-book sales falling by 10 percent during the first half of 2015. In the meantime, libraries continue to balance traditional and technological resources.

Out of these changes have come a few of new library philosophies. One is that the purpose of libraries is to provide a place for people to learn, to create, and to share. Shaker Library’s mission, “to build community and enrich lives by bringing together people, information, and ideas,” is somewhat similar, but the next step is to offer spaces that make it all possible. That leads to the second trend, which is to start thinking about designing library services and buildings around people and the way they use libraries instead of constructing facilities around stacks, equipment, and collections. Shaker Library has conducted two surveys of what people do when they are in the library, but it is also important to consider why they came to the library, what they saw when they arrived, and whether they got what they wanted!

Of course, Shaker Library still faces maintenance costs of $5 million over ten years that are beyond its budget. That adds up to about 60% more per year than is spent on regular, old fashioned books—that are still being used by the public. Additional funding is needed to get Shaker Library in 21st century shape!

Luren E. Dickinson, Director

From the Director September 2015

mortarboardRecently, the website NerdWallet named Shaker Heights as one of the most educated communities in America. This is old news to Shaker Library as we were aware of this fact back in 2011, when we worked with the OrangeBoy consulting firm during our strategic planning effort.  Shaker Library has been one of the best funded and most highly used libraries in the nation and that is likely because a highly educated populace demands great library service and a depth of resources not typically found in a district of this size.

The survey included those with high school degrees, some college, and further education from associate to advanced degrees. Interestingly, every one of the places that finished ahead of Shaker Heights was located within an hour’s drive or less of its state capital and/or Washington, DC, and was even closer to a very large university or multiple large universities.

Shaker Heights on the other hand is more than two hours from the state capital and nowhere near Washington, DC. In terms of nearby universities, the two biggest, Case and Cleveland State, have a combined enrollment significantly less than the University of Michigan alone. And the enrollments of just two universities in major metro areas, such as Harvard and Boston University or Stanford and UC Berkeley, dwarf the college population locally.

Certainly, the vast majority of the most educated people who reside in Shaker Heights work in education, the biomedical field, the legal profession, the banking industry, or corporate administration. But what draws them to the community is the housing stock, quality of schools, and, certainly, a quality public library system with excellent facilities and services, as well as an extremely deep collection made available through membership in the CLEVNET consortium.

Shaker Heights residents possess more than double the percentage of bachelor degrees as do all Cuyahoga County residents, and more than three times the proportion of master’s degrees. That is why it is important to note that through the CLEVNET consortium, Shaker Library provides direct access to more than 2.3 million unique titles, compared to just a half million offered by the county library system.

In reviewing the educational attainment data, Shaker Heights also stands out because of the sheer number of residents that possess master’s degrees, professional degrees, and doctoral degrees.  Shaker Heights is 16th in the nation in advanced degrees without the benefit of a more geographically populous or educationally prime location. In addition, Shaker Heights is number one in Ohio by a significant margin with 39.9% of residents possessing advanced degrees versus Upper Arlington, the next highest, where just 34.5% have earned such diplomas. No other Ohio community comes close, which makes Shaker Heights the most “highly educated” place in the state!

Therefore, we urge our highly educated audience to take advantage of all the resources, programs, and services made available through both the Main Library and the Bertram Woods Branch. Whether you are part of the “Brainy Bunch” just getting started with introducing your children to the world of reading, whether you are a “Regular” customer helping your older children with homework or pursuing your own education, or whether you are a “Heavyweight” user of the library in all its aspects, we have much to offer, from traditional books to streaming video and eBooks. Check us out!

Luren E. Dickinson, Director



From the Director August 2015

During this summer’s American Library Association annual conference in San Francisco, I attended a session by a generational expert about so-called “Millennials” (those born beginning in 1980).  She reported that the Millennial generation is becoming a growing part of the workforce.  In fact, according to this Pew Research Center chart, Millennials became the largest generational cohort in the U.S. workforce just this year:


Currently, about a third of American workers were born since 1980, and by the year 2020, that number will increase to 50%.  Even more surprisingly, by the year 2025, 75% of the world’s workforce will be made up of Millennials!  Because of higher birthrates elsewhere, some countries like India and China already have more Millennials than the entire U.S. population!  Many are very well educated and skilled, some of them making their way to America to fill key positions than have gone unfilled domestically.

With all the talk about Millennials, people are forgetting about the latest population cohort—Generation Z.  Those in this group are sometimes called the “Homeland” Generation because they are not old enough to remember the events of September 11, 2001 even though they have grown up in an era that is very much concerned about terrorism.

Like Millennials, members of Generation Z have lived in a world that is full of technology and can be considered “digital natives” because they have not known life without the Internet, cell phones, and tablets.  With that in mind, Shaker Heights Public Library became the first library in Cuyahoga County, and the first among 45 CLEVNET member libraries in 12 counties across northern Ohio to offer the new Playaway “Launchpads” for checkout.

These easy-to-use tablets are pre-loaded with a variety of interactive learning apps for children from preschool age to grade 5 and up. They are grouped as learning packs under subjects such as reading, math, science, creativity, and critical thinking; or themed learning packs, with topics like princesses, animals, transportation, dinosaurs, space, fantasy, etc.  Shaker Library has Launchpads for ages 3 to 5 (Pre-K to Kindergarten) and ages 5 to 7 (Kindergarten to 2nd Grade)—see the illustration below.  Depending upon demand, ages 8 to 10 (3rd Grade to 5th Grade) and ages 10+ (5th Grade and up) may be added.

The tablets do not have cameras or wifi capability, which means kids cannot be accidentally exposed to undesirable content.  Housed in Youth Services, they are available at both Main Library and Bertram Woods. Only two devices may be checked out to a parent at one time.  The length of checkout is seven days.

launchpad-heroShaker Library hosted a Launchpad kickoff party July 7 with representatives from Playaway, a Solon-based business.  Of the original 30 purchased, all but 3 of the devices had checked out within the first few hours.

madison dogThe joint countywide “Make Your Summer Count—Read!” Summer Reading Program ends August 7 and has certainly been a success thanks to our many library and institutional partners.  Of note is our PR partner, WKYC-TV3, which has televised regular features during the course of the summer that have helped promote registration.  A big thank you also goes out to our countywide summer reading “spokeschild” Madison Reid.  This precocious 8-year-old has charmed everyone and she absolutely loved her “Read to a Dog” experience at Shaker Library last month.

Luren E. Dickinson, Director

From the Director July 2015

The recent community survey conducted by Shaker Library through the TRIAD Research Group, had some interesting, as well as unexpected, results. 500 registered voters in the Shaker Heights School District were interviewed by the marketing research firm. The purpose of the survey was to measure the perceived need and support for replacing or renovating existing facilities, per the strategic plan approved in 2012. As a means of staying fiscally strong in a time of diminishing tax dollars, the plan has directed the Library to explore the possibility of a single new facility to replace two aging structures.

Earlier action steps as part of this process included the Facilities Assessment, conducted by HBM Architects in early 2014. That study showed it would cost $5 million over the next 10 years just to bring the 89-year-old Main Library and 55-year-old Bertram Woods Branch up to an acceptable maintenance level—with no regard for modernizing them for 21st century library service.

Later, a Feasibility Study by HBM Architects looked at ways of putting funds into renovation and/or new construction rather than maintenance. It culminated in the World Café last September. These public forums presented a variety of concepts and solicited input from concerned citizens as to modern library design, location possibilities, and cost factors.

Survey respondents skewed slightly female, as does the overall population of Shaker Heights, with family and racial representation similar to the census. The group leaned more heavily to those aged 50 and older, since most voters tend to be in that group, and just over half had lived here more than 20 years.

Positive results were that 85% felt satisfied or very satisfied to live in the community and 93% shared similar feelings about the Library with 71% agreeing a good job was done with available funding. 79% had used the Library in the last year and just over half visited weekly or monthly. 94% said a good public library is important to the quality of life in Shaker Heights.
The real disconnect in public perceptions related to facilities. In general, a clear majority of up to 59% think the library buildings are in adequate or good condition. Only a quarter of the respondents thought that minor repairs might be necessary. A similar majority opposed closing Bertram Woods Branch in favor of a renovated Main Library and/or a new single facility.

Losses in both state funding and local property tax collections did not seem to influence the opinions given with 60% saying that lower income did not make a difference in whether a new facility was needed. 54% said the age of the current structures also was not a factor with 74% wishing to preserve the Main Library as an “historic” building even though it was originally a school.

Some shift of opinion was detected as 42% agreed they might support closing Bertram Woods if it saved $1 million in annual operating costs. Likewise, over one third supported a new Main facility if it could be built while the current library remained open. The most-desired services—in the 80 to 90% range—were accessibility, up-to-date technology, and adequate parking. Space for children/families, meetings, and teens fell in the 55 to 75% range. When asked about more innovative services, such as a drive-up window, reading garden, or café, only “creative learning spaces” reached the 40% level.

According to TRIAD, organizations needing support must convince the public of:

  1. Performance;
  2. Need;
  3.  Importance; and
  4.  Cost.

Shaker Library has done a good job with performance, but it has to show the public the need for facility improvements, devise a plan that is seen as important, and justify the cost that would be necessary to complete the work. Now is the time to continue this dialog with various stakeholders and the community in general!

Luren E. Dickinson, Director


From the Director June 2015

Shaker Library recently hired the TRIAD Research Group to conduct a community survey of 500 registered voters in the Shaker Heights School District via landlines and cell phones. It will be a random sample with interviews stratified across the district in proportion to the distribution of voters and by gender. The survey was tentatively scheduled to begin May 27 and to be completed in early June.

The purpose of the survey is to measure the perceived need and support for replacing or renovating existing facilities, per the strategic plan approved in 2012. As a means of remaining fiscally strong in a time of diminishing tax dollars, the plan directed the Library to explore the possibility of a single new facility to replace two aging structures.

As part of this process earlier action steps included a Facilities Assessment, conducted by HBM Architects in early 2014. That study showed it would cost approximately $5 million over the next 10 years to maintain both library buildings. Just to bring the Library’s structures up to an acceptable level of maintenance, with no regard for modernizing them to provide 21st century library service, it would take $4 million for the 89-year-old Main Library and $1 million for the 55-year-old Bertram Woods Branch.

Following the assessment, a Feasibility Study by HBM Architects looked at ways of allocating future maintenance dollars to renovation and/or new construction. It culminated in two World Café information sessions last September. These public forums presented a variety of concepts and solicited input from citizens as to modern library design, location possibilities, and cost factors.

A comprehensive, professional survey is being conducted now because the Library needs to hear more about what members of the community think and feel about our facilities.

The survey will attempt to:

• Assess basic attitudes toward Shaker Library as a community institution
• Examine public perceptions about the conditions of the library’s buildings and the need to update them
• Measure the level of support and opposition for a possible bond issue to pay for replacing or renovating the library buildings
• Test specific arguments and themes both for and against a bond issue to replace or renovate library buildings.

It is expected that an initial summary of the survey results will be presented to the Library Board of Trustees at its regular meeting on June 8. A final written report should be submitted by the end of the month.

At this time, no decisions have been made about library facilities or whether the Library would be going on the ballot in the near future. Community feedback from the survey will guide that decision-making. The survey results will also help the Library to shape the key messages that would resonate with residents and be effective in gaining and reinforcing public support for facility improvements as well as potential ballot initiatives.

Luren E. Dickinson, Director


From the Director May 2015

LOGO WITHOUT CIRCLEWhile it seems we are barely into spring, it’s time to begin thinking about summer. At the Library when we think about summer, we think about summer reading. This year, Shaker Library will collaborate with six other library systems within the county including Cleveland, Cleveland Heights-University Heights, Cuyahoga County, East Cleveland, Euclid, and Westlake.

This summer’s program, “Make Your Summer Count,” will go beyond promoting reading, it will also encourage children to participate in a variety of math and volunteer activities. Joining our seven library systems are some of the area’s finest cultural institutions including, the Children’s Museum of ClevelandCleveland Metroparks Zoo, Cleveland Museum of Natural HistoryGreat Lakes Science Center, Greater Cleveland Aquarium, NASA, and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum.

Be sure to watch the library for details about the program, which begins June 8 and continues through August 7, and make your summer count!

Luren E. Dickinson, Director



From the Director April 2015

mel and troyWe welcome two new Library trustees this month—Melissa Garrett and Troy Meinhard. Ms. Garrett will complete the five years remaining in her predecessor’s term while Mr. Meinhard will begin a full 7-year term on the Board. Each will be sworn in at the regular meeting on April 13 by School Board Vice President Reuben Harris.


This month finds libraries across the state in the midst of Ohio’s every-two-year budget process. Governor Kasich announced his 719-page proposal, entitled “Blueprint for a New Ohio,” in late January. Also known as HB 64, it covers the period from July 1, 2015 through June 30, 2017.

The major changes called for in the budget proposal are those involving tax cuts and tax increases. The Governor proposes to cut the personal income tax by 23% over the next two fiscal years—15% in FY2016 and 8% in FY2017. He also wants to increase the cigarette tax by $1 per pack and the state sales tax by 0.5%. In addition, he is looking at a 6.5% severance tax on oil and gas production.

Public libraries are concerned about any changes in taxes because the source of the statewide Public Library Fund is Ohio’s general tax revenue. While tax cuts would likely reduce that revenue, tax increases could offset those losses; however, with the complexity involved, it creates a great deal of uncertainty.

It is estimated that the proposed budget would see an increase in the PLF of 5.7% in FY2016 and an increase of 3.9% in FY2017, but no one really knows how accurate these numbers are. When the current biennial budget, HB 59, was proposed two years ago, public libraries were told to expect similar increases. However, when the bill eventually passed it included numerous amendments, most of which eliminated certain tax increases.

The results have been disappointing. Each of the first six months of FY2014 (July through December 2013) saw a decrease in actual receipts from the PLF compared to the state’s estimates. And the funding received in 2014 was 2% below what had been received in 2013. This has continued the overall downward trend in Ohio’s state funding for public libraries. The sad fact is that the PLF has declined by 24% since 2007 and by 30% since 2001 and funding in 2014 was the lowest since 1996.

For years the Ohio Library Council has been trying to “stop the bleeding,” but without success. An amendment to increase the PLF was put forward two years ago, but was left out of the final budget that was passed. More recently, OLC has been touting a “Restore the PLF” campaign with the intent of returning the current 1.66% of the state’s general revenue to the original 2.22%. It seems clear now that no such thing will happen.

A recent missive from OLC has asked for support for an amendment from Representative Marlene Anielski (R-Walton Hills) to reset the percentage for the PLF from 1.66% to 1.75%. That would amount to an increase of just under 5.5%. Combined with the estimated 5.7% and assuming no unexpected decline in state revenues, the PLF would still barely be above the 1997 level!

Any increase is better than a decrease, but none of this accounts for the dollars lost through inflation. Library Legislative Day in Columbus is April 28. It should be an interesting event!

Luren E. Dickinson, Director